The vineyards of the Peloponnese are concentrated mainly on hilly and mountainous areas, either in complex terrain, or plains and valleys between the mountains. The Peloponnese vineyards are shared into two main areas. One consists of the eastern and central part with key areas Nemea and Mantinia and the other on the west side, starting from the north and on the slopes of Mount Panachaiko, near Egion and Patras, and follows the coast of the Ionian Sea, stretching down to Messinia. Its main vine growing areas are Achaia in the north and Ilia and Messinia in the south. The vineyards of the Peloponnese have a mild Mediterranean climate, which is formed by the favorable effect of the sea breeze of the Gulf of Corinth and, the cold air provided by mountain ranges of Central Greece and central Peloponnese.
• The vineyards of Nemea
The vineyards of Nemea is the largest zone producing PDO wines in Greece and covers a total of 7,500 acres, planted exclusively with the fine red variety Agiorgitiko. Local vineyards are found in three different altitudes. The lowland area, located around the cities of Nemea and Ancient Nemea at an altitude from 260 to 350m, the semi-hilly located on the southwestern slopes around the valley of Nemea at an altitude from 350 to 600m, And the mountainous, which are located at the foot of Mount Kyllini altitude from 600 to 800m. The vineyards are usually of bilateral linear shape, with about 1600-2000 vines per acre. Depending on the altitude, different microclimates and soils which vary in texture and fertility are found. Thus, in the hilly zone, see the Agiorgitiko maturing early, while in the mountainous area longer is taken to ripen.
• The vineyards of Mantinia
The vineyards of Mantinia are located on a plateau at an altitude of 650m., in the center of the Peloponnese, where the variety Moschofilero is cultivated, giving fragrant white wines. The traditional vineyards are densely planted and trained into goblets while, the most recent linear vineyards cover from 1200 to 1800 plants per acre. The entire area consists of approximately 2,500 acres, which are located mainly on sandy clay soils with few slopes. Although located in the southern part of the area, vineyard Mantinia is one of the coolest growing regions of Greece, with often adverse weather conditions during the autumn season.
• The vineyards of Achaia
The vineyards of Achaia consists of different terroirs with the most outstanding being those on the slopes of Egialia, which extends along the Gulf of Corinth. The vineyards on the slopes of Egialia are located at altitudes between 250 and 850m, with plots that vary in composition, fertility and drainage. In this area rosé Roditis is grown and because of its mild climate the most fragrant white wines are produced. West, with similar climatic conditions and at altitudes ranging from 450 to 500m., the vineyard of Patras are found. Roditis, is also cultivated there and because of the lower altitude, it ripens earlier. At lower altitudes, in the wider region of Patras, we find the red variety Mavrodaphne, while in the flat lands the cultivation of Muscat White is dominant.
• The vineyards of Ilia and Messinia
Starting from Ilia, vineyards are found on flat lands with fertile soils, that have large water reserves, thanks to the waters of the rivers Alfios and Pinios. In Messinia, in contrast with Ilia, the vineyards are located in the highlands, enjoying the positive effect of the Ionian Sea, with Trifylia area being prominent. Characteristic of the western side of the Peloponnese is the successful cultivation of a range of international varieties for several decades now, with the greatest being Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache Rouge and Refosco. We have also the culture of indigenous varieties such as Roditis, Mavrodaphne, Fokiano and Avgoustiatis.